politics.gif (4413 bytes)

flag_eagle.gif (9460 bytes)

Home

Swift Boat Vets for Truth
Thank you President Bush
Is it Time to Secede?
Quotes
BLM Seizes Cattle in Nevada
Casey Martin and the Broken ADA
Exit Poll Analysis
Electoral College
Election 2000 Results
Campaign Finance Reform
Myths about the U.S. Constitution
Moderates and the Middle
New Democracy
Political Glossary
Tearing Apart Claims for Abortion Rights

Congressional Bills

House Resolution 466
Senate Bill 2099

Other Writers

Genocide of Sudanese Christians
Gun Control: British Style
Does Truth Exist?
Truth May Inconvenience Our Perceptions

Documents

Constitution of the CSA
Declaration of Independence
Federalist Papers
U.S. Constitution

Speeches

Emancipation Proclamation
Gettysburg Address
Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death

Books

More Guns, Less Crime by John Lott
Guns, Crime, and Freedom by Wayne Lapierre
More

Humor

Noah in 2000

Patriotic Award of Honor

Spirit of America Award

This is the entire U.S. Constitution.  My own summaries of the articles are written in small italic print following each.  I do try to keep my comments as objective as possible and try not to include any bias.

U.S. Constitution:  Amendments 11-27

bullet11th Amendment
bullet12th Amendment
bullet13th Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bullet14th Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bulletSection 3
bulletSection 4
bulletSection 5
bullet15th Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bullet16th Amendment
bullet17th Amendment
bullet18th Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bulletSection 3
bullet19th Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bullet20th Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bulletSection 3
bulletSection 4
bulletSection 5
bulletSection 6
bullet21st Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bulletSection 3
bullet22nd Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bullet23rd Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bullet24th Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bullet25th Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bulletSection 3
bulletSection 4
bullet26th Amendment
bulletSection 1
bulletSection 2
bullet27th Amendment
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of, the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution

[Article]

11th Amendment [Proposed 1794; Ratified 1798]

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

Summary: Federal courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, have no jurisdiction over state or local courts, including any legal matters regarding the state governments themselves.  This makes state supreme courts the highest "law of the land".

[Article]

12th Amendment [Proposed 1803; Ratified 1804]

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.—The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

[Contested Article]

[Proposed 1810 as 13th Amendment]

If any Citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive or retain any Title of Nobility or Honour, or shall, without the Consent of Congress, accept and retain any present, Pension, Office or Emolument of any kind whatever, from any Emperor, King, Prince or foreign Power, such Person shall cease to be a Citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable of holding any Office of Trust or Profit under them, or either of them.

Summary:  No U.S. Citizen is allowed to accept or maintain a title of any sort from any other country.  Nor shall the holder of a foreign title by allowed ownership of U.S. property to to profit from U.S. property.

[Unratified Article]

[Proposed 1861 as 13th Amendment; Signed by President Lincoln; Unratified]

Article Thirteen. No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or service by the laws of said State.

Summary:  No amendment may be passed that governs specific practices within the states that are considered legal by that state but may be considered illegal outside of that state.  This includes slavery.  In other words, this Amendment, if ratified, would have prevented the ratification of our current 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery.

[Article]

13th Amendment [Proposed 1865; Ratified 1865]

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Summary:  Slavery is illegal within U.S. borders and any other place ruled by U.S. courts.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

[Article]

14th Amendment [Proposed 1866; Ratified Under Duress 1868]

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Summary:  Every person born in the U.S. is a U.S. citizen.   No state can deny rights to any citizen without a legal hearing.  States must apply all laws to every person.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Summary:  Government representation is based on population, excluding Indian reservations that are exempt from state jurisdiction.   Voting for President, Vice-President, U.S. Congress, State Governor, State Judges, and State legislators is done by male citizens age 21 or older, who have not committed treasonous acts.

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Summary:  Nobody who has committed a treasonous act is allowed to hold a position as a federal government official, military official, state official, or judge.  This can be repealed by a Congressional vote of 2/3.

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Summary:  All debts owed by and to the U.S. are valid except for any claims for loss due to the outlawing of slavery.

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

[Article]

15th Amendment [Proposed 1869; Ratified 1870]

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Summary:  The right to vote can't be denied because of race or skin color.  Nor can the right be denied because the individual was once a slave.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

[Article]

16th Amendment [Proposed 1909; Questionably Ratified 1913]

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

Summary:  Federal income tax is legal.

[Article]

17th Amendment [Proposed 1912; Ratified 1913]

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

Summary:  The U.S. Senate is composed of two elected senators from each state for a term of six years.  In Senate matters, each senator has exactly one vote.  Requirements for running for U.S. Senate are the same as running for the legislature of the state.  Some people claim that the reference to "six years" implies that a senator is allowed only a single six-year term, since a second six-year term could be considered a total of twelve years.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

Summary:  Vacancies in the Senate are filled by a state election.  Until the election occurs, the state legislature may grant the governor the authority to appoint an interim senator.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Summary:  This portion is very vague.  It either means that senators already serving at the time of the ratification of the amendment are not affected in any way, or that the senators already serving are affected beginning at the ratification of the amendment.  The second explanation means that a senator who's been serving a state-determined 12-year term will now only serve a 6-year term starting with the date of the ratification of the amendment.

[Article]

18th Amendment [Proposed 1917; Ratified 1919; Repealed 1933 with 21st Amendment]

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Summary:  Also called "Prohibition", this makes the manufacturing, sale, and trafficking of alcohol illegal.

Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Summary:  Unless ratified, this proposed article expires after seven years.

[Article]

19th Amendment [Proposed 1919; Ratified 1920]

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Summary:  The right to vote cannot be denied based on gender.   Gives women the right to vote.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

[Unratified Article]

[Proposed 1926 as 20th Amendment; Unratified]

Section 1. The Congress shall have power to limit, regulate, and prohibit the labor of persons under eighteen years of age.

Summary:  Congress can make laws regarding the employment of anyone under the age of 18.

Section 2. The power of the several States is unimpaired by this article except that the operation of State laws shall be suspended to the extent necessary to give effect to legislation enacted by the Congress.

Summary:  Federal laws passed by Congress under Section 1 supersede all state laws regarding employment of people under 18.

[Article]

20th Amendment [Proposed 1932; Ratified 1933]

Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Summary:  President and Vice President terms end noon, January 20.  Senate and House of Representatives terms end noon, January 3.  The next terms begin immediately after.

Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Summary:  U.S. Congress must meet at least once per year.   One meeting is at noon, January 3, unless they change it.

Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Summary:  If the President dies after elected but before the beginning of the term, the Vice President will be the President.  If no President is elected or if the elected president is disqualified, then the Vice President will act as interim President until the elected President is qualified or a new qualified President is elected.  If both the President and Vice President are disqualified, then Congress will appoint an interim President and determine how a new President will be elected.   This interim President will act as President until both a President and Vice President are qualified.

Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Summary:  If you have a clue what this means, email me.

Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

Summary:  This proposed article expires if not ratified within seven years.

[Article]

21st Amendment [Proposed 1933; Ratified 1933]

Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Summary:  18th Amendment is now gone.

Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Summary:  Alcohol is now legal again.

Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Summary:  This proposed article expires if not ratified within seven years.

[Article]

22nd Amendment [Proposed 1947; Ratified 1951]

Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Summary:  Limits presidents to either two consecutive terms or a partial term plus a full term.  In other words, if the VP takes over as president upon the President's death, the VP can be re-elected only once after the current term has been served.  Any president in office during the proposal or ratification of this amendment will not be removed from office and will be allowed to finish his/her current term.

Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

Summary:  This proposed article expires if not ratified within seven years.

[Article]

23rd Amendment [Proposed 1960; Ratified 1961]

Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Summary:  The independent district (Washington, D.C.) will have a share of electors for President and Vice President equivalent to that of a state of equal size, but not to exceed the smallest state.  This body of electors will have the same responsibilities and requirements as states' electors as outlined in the 12th Amendment.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

[Article]

24th Amendment [Proposed 1962; Ratified 1964]

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Summary:  Outlaws the refusal to allow voting rights for President, VP, President/VP electors, Senate, or House of Representatives based on a failure to pay any type of tax, including a poll tax.

History:  A poll tax was created in some precincts and was required to vote.  The polling bodies claimed that it was to cover poll costs.   But the poll taxes ultimately blocked out poor voters, especially those of minority races.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

[Article]

25th Amendment [Proposed 1965; Ratified 1967]

Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Summary:  If a President is impeached, dies, or resigns, the Vice President will be the new President.

Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Summary:  If the position of Vice President becomes vacant, the new Vice President will be nominated by the President and must be approved by a majority vote of the Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Summary:  If the President sends a signed letter to Congress stating that he/she is unable to perform the duties of the President, then the Vice President will assume the duties of the President until the President sends a signed letter to Congress stating that he/she is able to perform Presidential duties again.

Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Summary:  If the Vice President, along with a majority of executive department heads, sends a letter to the Senate and House of Representatives stating that the President is unable to perform presidential duties adequately, the Vice President will then assume all presidential duties.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

Summary:  At that point, the President must send a signed letter to the Senate and House of Representatives stating that he/she is able to perform all presidential duties, and he/she will immediately assume the duties again unless the Vice President, along with a majority of executive department heads, sends a letter within four days to the Senate and House of Representatives that the President is, in fact, unable to perform presidential duties.  If this second letter is received from the Vice President, Congress must decide by 2/3 vote the fate of the presidency within twenty-one days.  If Congress has not decided within twenty-one days, the Vice President will continue to act as President.

[Article]

26th Amendment [Proposed 1971; Ratified 1971]

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

Summary:  18-year-olds can now vote.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

[Inoperative Article]

[Proposed 1972 as 27th Amendment; Expired Unratified 1982]

Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification.

Summary:  This article would have made all gender-specific laws illegal.

[Inoperative Article]

[Proposed 1978 as 27th or 28th Amendment; Expired Unratified 1985]

Section 1. For purposes of representation in the Congress, election of the President and Vice President, and article V of this Constitution, the District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall be treated as though it were a State.

Section 2. The exercise of the rights and powers conferred under this article shall be by the people of the District constituting the seat of government, and as shall be provided by the Congress.

Section 3. The twenty-third article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 4. This article shall be inoperative, unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

Summary:  For voting purposes (including amending the Constitution as outlined in Article V), this article would have repealed the 23rd Amendment and made Washington, D.C. the equivalent of a state.

[Article]

27th Amendment [Proposed 1789 as 1st Amendment; Ratified 1992; Second of twelve Articles comprising the Bill of Rights]

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

News Sites

NewsMax.com

Political Sites

Carolyn Gargaro
Issues and Views
Jewish World Review
LewRockwell.com
LizMichael.com
National Review
Rightgrrl!
Send Them Packing
The Sierra Times
Whitaker Online

Radio Shows

Chuck Baldwin
Ken Hamblin
Dr. Laura
Jason Lewis
Rush Limbaugh

TV Shows

Hannity and Colmes
The O'Reilly Factor

Organizations

Americans for Fair Taxation

Political Parties

American Reform Party
Constitution Party
Democrat Party
Green Party
Libertarian Party
Natural Law Party
Reform Party
Republican Party
Southern Party

Anti PC Brown Ribbon Campaign

Position on Racism